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enthalpy balance in evaporation of bayer

Single Effect Evaporator - Mass and Enthalpy Balance

05/09/2015  Mass and enthalpy balance of a single effect evaporator

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Multiple Effect Evaporator - Mass and Enthalpy Balance ...

05/09/2015  Mass and enthalpy balance of a triple effect evaporator

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CHAPTER 8 EVAPORATION - NZIFST

Heat balance Heat available per kg of steam o = latent heat + sensible heat in cooling to 91 C 6 3 = 2.164 x 10 + 4.186 x 10 (134 - 91) 6 5 = 2.164 x 10 + 1.8 x 10 6 - = 2.34 x 10 Jkg 1 Heat required by the solution o o = latent heat + sensible heat in heating from 18 C to 91 C 3 3 = 2281 x 10 x 167 + 250 x 4.186 x 10 x (91 - 18)

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Evaporation Examples

The potential evaporation by the Energy Balance method is given by Eq. (3.5.10): 𝐸 = 𝑅 𝜌 = 𝑅 𝐿 Where L = 𝜌 is the Latent Heat factor given in Table 1. For a temperature of 17°C, the corresponding factor is L = 28.89 (W/m2)/(mm/day). Hence, the potential evaporation by the energy balance method for a net radiation of 52 W/m2 is: 𝐸 = 𝑅 𝐿 = 52 28.89 =1.80 / 𝑎 Temp ...

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Chapter 8 and 9 – Energy Balances - Poly

Recall that enthalpy and internal energy are always defined relative to a reference state (Chapter 7). When solving energy balance problems, it is therefore necessary to define a reference state for each chemical species in the energy balance (the reference state may be predefined if a tabulated set of data is used such as the steam tables). Example. Suppose water vapor at 300 oC and 5 bar is ...

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Flash evaporation - Wikipedia

Flash evaporation of a single-component liquid. The flash evaporation of a single-component liquid is an isenthalpic process and is often referred to as an adiabatic flash. The following equation, derived from a simple heat balance around the throttling valve or device, is used to predict how much of a single-component liquid is vaporized.

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(PDF) ALUMINA YIELD IN THE BAYER PROCESS PAST,

Generally the minimal impact on the overall plant heat balance. speaking it is more cost-efficient to increase seed surface area than holding time, explaining the drive to increase solids Precipitation temperature profile concentration in precipitator tanks. Seed surface area is again the combination of SSA and SD. The liquor temperature associated with the highest crystallization rate depends ...

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RMP Lecture Notes

17/12/1996  Solve the set of equations that is made up of one enthalpy balance for each effect and the total vapor material balance for the unknown vapor flows (one off each effect and the steam to the first). Use heat transfer equations to calculate the heat transfer area for each effect. Compare the areas. If they are not equal, you need to repeat the calculation. Begin by using the areas you obtained ...

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Chapter 7 – Energy and Energy Balances

The concept of energy conservation as expressed by an energy balance equation is central to chemical engineering calculations. Similar to mass balances studied previously, a balance on energy is crucial to solving many problems. _____ System A “system” is an object or a collection of objects that an analysis is done on. The system has a definite boundary, called the system boundary, that ...

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1 Fundamentals of Energy Analysis of Dryers

supply the latent heat of evaporation to remove the water or other solvent. There are thus clear incentives to reduce energy use in drying: to conserve finite resources of fossil fuels, to reduce carbon footprint and combat climate change, and to improve process economics, but it is a challenging task facing real thermodynamic barriers. Effective analysis of current energy use is a vital ...

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RMP Lecture Notes

17/12/1996  Solve the set of equations that is made up of one enthalpy balance for each effect and the total vapor material balance for the unknown vapor flows (one off each effect and the steam to the first). Use heat transfer equations to calculate the heat transfer area for each effect. Compare the areas. If they are not equal, you need to repeat the calculation. Begin by using the areas you obtained ...

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CHAPTER 8 EVAPORATION - NZIFST

Heat balance Heat available per kg of steam o = latent heat + sensible heat in cooling to 91 C 6 3 = 2.164 x 10 + 4.186 x 10 (134 - 91) 6 5 = 2.164 x 10 + 1.8 x 10 6 - = 2.34 x 10 Jkg 1 Heat required by the solution o o = latent heat + sensible heat in heating from 18 C to 91 C 3 3 = 2281 x 10 x 167 + 250 x 4.186 x 10 x (91 - 18)

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SINGLE EFFECT EVAPORATOR CALCULATION

Energy Balance Fh f +S s =VH v +Lh l ... Remark: (1.88 x BPR) = Enthalpy of superheated vapor at actual T Cp f Cp l 0 C c. h f =Cp f (T f (oC) –0oC) or from Chart or empirical equation b. h l l (T 1 (oC) – 0oC) or from Chart or empirical equation H v = Enthalpy of saturated vapor at T 1 (BP of water at P 1) + 1 d. s = Latent heat at T. Title: SINGLE EFFECT EVAPORATOR CALCULATION Author: M ...

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Chapter 8 and 9 – Energy Balances - Poly

Recall that enthalpy and internal energy are always defined relative to a reference state (Chapter 7). When solving energy balance problems, it is therefore necessary to define a reference state for each chemical species in the energy balance (the reference state may be predefined if a tabulated set of data is used such as the steam tables). Example. Suppose water vapor at 300 oC and 5 bar is ...

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APV Evaporator Hndbook

generally limit the evaporation capacity of such a system. Heat transfer is improved by agitation within the vessel. In many cases, large temperature differences cannot be used for fear of rapid fouling of the heat transfer surface. Relatively low evaporation capacities, therefore, limit its use. STEAM PRODUCT CONDENSER CONDENSATE Figure 1 APV Evaporator Hndbook 12/6/00 11:07 AM Page 5 ...

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Mass Balance in a Single-Stage Evaporator - Wolfram ...

This Demonstration calculates the amount of vapor and concentrate produced by a single-stage evaporator. The adjustable parameters are the feed, expressed in terms of total mass or mass flow rate units, and the concentrations of the feed and concentrate, expressed as mass fractions on a wet weight basis. The mass balance is based on solving the equation

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Unit Operations in Food Processing - R. L. Earle

However, as the latent heat of evaporation is the dominant term the above calculation gives a quick estimate and shows how a simple energy balance can give useful information. Similarly energy balances can be carried out over thermal processing operations, and indeed any processing operations in which heat or other forms of energy are used. EXAMPLE 2.12. Heat balance for cooling pea soup after ...

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1 Fundamentals of Energy Analysis of Dryers

supply the latent heat of evaporation to remove the water or other solvent. There are thus clear incentives to reduce energy use in drying: to conserve finite resources of fossil fuels, to reduce carbon footprint and combat climate change, and to improve process economics, but it is a challenging task facing real thermodynamic barriers. Effective analysis of current energy use is a vital ...

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RMP Lecture Notes

No heat losses to surroundings Ideal gas behavior for vapor Perfect mixing F, V, and L are the volumetric flows of the feed, vapor product, and liquid product, V T the total volume of the tank. Total material balance: 'deriv(V;T*?rho?;T,t)=F-V-L In many cases, the total mass in the vapor phase is much less than that in the liquid phase. One can ...

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Solved: 3. Evaporation Energy Balance Evaporation Is

Evaporation Energy Balance Evaporation is commonly used to concentrate a feed stream by evaporating water, resulting in an increase in the concentration of the solid dissolved in solution. Heat required to vaporize the water is provided by steam that flows through a tube inside of the evaporator, with saturated steam fed to the evaporator and saturated liquid exiting the tube from the ...

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SINGLE EFFECT EVAPORATOR CALCULATION

Energy Balance Fh f +S s =VH v +Lh l ... Remark: (1.88 x BPR) = Enthalpy of superheated vapor at actual T Cp f Cp l 0 C c. h f =Cp f (T f (oC) –0oC) or from Chart or empirical equation b. h l l (T 1 (oC) – 0oC) or from Chart or empirical equation H v = Enthalpy of saturated vapor at T 1 (BP of water at P 1) + 1 d. s = Latent heat at T. Title: SINGLE EFFECT EVAPORATOR CALCULATION Author: M ...

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Thermodynamic simulation of the Bayer process

In a recent process simulation of the Bayer circuit [27], ChemApp was combined with a Bayer liquor model developed at Murdoch University [26]. The model is based on the Pitzer equations [28] and ...

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RMP Lecture Notes

17/12/1996  Solve the set of equations that is made up of one enthalpy balance for each effect and the total vapor material balance for the unknown vapor flows (one off each effect and the steam to the first). Use heat transfer equations to calculate the heat transfer area for each effect. Compare the areas. If they are not equal, you need to repeat the calculation. Begin by using the areas you obtained ...

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(PDF) Evaporation and Heat balance in Aerated Basins

Heat balance equations for the superheater, evaporator, and the complete HRSG are given along with examples for calculating the HRSG temperature profiles after assuming the pinch and approach ...

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1 Fundamentals of Energy Analysis of Dryers

supply the latent heat of evaporation to remove the water or other solvent. There are thus clear incentives to reduce energy use in drying: to conserve finite resources of fossil fuels, to reduce carbon footprint and combat climate change, and to improve process economics, but it is a challenging task facing real thermodynamic barriers. Effective analysis of current energy use is a vital ...

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APV Evaporator Hndbook

generally limit the evaporation capacity of such a system. Heat transfer is improved by agitation within the vessel. In many cases, large temperature differences cannot be used for fear of rapid fouling of the heat transfer surface. Relatively low evaporation capacities, therefore, limit its use. STEAM PRODUCT CONDENSER CONDENSATE Figure 1 APV Evaporator Hndbook 12/6/00 11:07 AM Page 5 ...

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Steam and Vapor Enthalpy - Engineering ToolBox

The heat required for changing state as evaporation is referred to as latent heat of evaporation. The most common vapor is evaporated water - steam or moist. Enthalpy. Enthalpy of a system is defined as the mass of the system - m - multiplied by the specific enthalpy - h - of the system and can be expressed as: H = m h (1) where. H = enthalpy (kJ) m = mass (kg) h = specific enthalpy (kJ/kg ...

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Energy and Heat Balance Anatomy and Physiology II

Evaporation is the transfer of heat by the evaporation of water. Because it takes a great deal of energy for a water molecule to change from a liquid to a gas, evaporating water (in the form of sweat) takes with it a great deal of energy from the skin. However, the rate at which evaporation occurs depends on relative humidity—more sweat evaporates in lower humidity environments. Sweating is ...

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RMP Lecture Notes

No heat losses to surroundings Ideal gas behavior for vapor Perfect mixing F, V, and L are the volumetric flows of the feed, vapor product, and liquid product, V T the total volume of the tank. Total material balance: 'deriv(V;T*?rho?;T,t)=F-V-L In many cases, the total mass in the vapor phase is much less than that in the liquid phase. One can ...

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Keeping Things Cool Through Evaporation

01/08/2016  The latent heat of evaporation of water is 970 BTU/lb, meaning that 970 BTU of energy is removed from the environment for each pound of water that is evaporated. Ventilation is an essential component of evaporative cooling as the evaporation of water causes humidity levels to rise. Since high levels of humidity can create problems for plant ...

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